Week 5 lecture and discussion questions
Chapter_025 CHN.pptx (902.033 KB)
Communicable Disease and Infectious Disease.
- According to the World Health Orgnization, an emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range (WHO). Outbreaks are the occurrence of disease cases in excess of what would normally be expected for a community, geographical area or season (WHO). Examples of recent outbreaks affecting public health in United States include Group A Streptococcus, Pertussis, Zika, Mumps, and Measles.
Read chapter 25 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentation. Once done answer the following questions;
Discuss the principles related to the occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases.
Describe the three focus areas in Healthy People 2020 and the objectives that apply to communicable and infectious diseases.
Identify and discuss nursing activities for the control of infectious diseases at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention.
Identify and discuss a communicable and/or infectious disease that it was believed to be eradicated and have reemerged now. For example; measles.
Expert Solution Preview
In this answer, we will discuss the principles related to the occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases. We will also describe the three focus areas in Healthy People 2020 and the objectives that apply to communicable and infectious diseases. Additionally, we will identify and discuss nursing activities for the control of infectious diseases at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. Finally, we will identify and discuss a communicable and/or infectious disease that was believed to be eradicated and has reemerged now.
1. Principles related to the occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases:
Communicable and infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These diseases can be transmitted from an infected individual to a susceptible person through various modes of transmission, including direct contact (e.g., touching, kissing), indirect contact (e.g., contaminated objects), respiratory droplets (e.g., coughing, sneezing), airborne transmission (e.g., droplet nuclei), vector-borne transmission (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks), and fecal-oral transmission (e.g., contaminated food or water).
The occurrence of communicable and infectious diseases is influenced by several factors, including the host’s vulnerability, the presence of a suitable environment for the pathogen to survive and multiply, and the pathogen’s ability to enter the host and cause infection. Additionally, social and behavioral factors, such as overcrowding, poor sanitation, inadequate access to healthcare, and low vaccination rates, can contribute to the spread of these diseases.
2. The three focus areas in Healthy People 2020 and the objectives that apply to communicable and infectious diseases:
– Health Communication: The objective is to increase the health literacy of individuals and communities regarding communicable and infectious diseases. This includes promoting awareness, knowledge, and understanding of prevention and control measures, as well as effective communication strategies to disseminate accurate information.
– Immunization and Infectious Diseases: The objective is to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases and reduce the transmission of infectious diseases. This includes increasing vaccination rates, promoting the use of recommended immunizations, and enhancing surveillance and response systems to detect and respond to outbreaks promptly.
– Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI): The objective is to prevent and reduce healthcare-associated infections. This includes implementing evidence-based practices to prevent infections in healthcare settings, improving hand hygiene compliance, promoting safe injection practices, and enhancing antimicrobial stewardship programs to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant infections.
3. Nursing activities for the control of infectious diseases at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention:
– Primary prevention: Nurses play a crucial role in health promotion and disease prevention. They educate individuals and communities about vaccination, proper hygiene practices (e.g., handwashing), safe food handling, and the importance of a healthy lifestyle. They also participate in immunization campaigns and advocate for policies and practices that prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
– Secondary prevention: Nurses are involved in early detection and prompt treatment of infectious diseases. They conduct screenings, perform diagnostic tests, and provide appropriate interventions to prevent the progression of the disease and limit its transmission to others. They also collaborate with other healthcare professionals in contact tracing and outbreak investigations.
– Tertiary prevention: Nurses contribute to the management and control of infectious diseases in individuals who have already been infected. They provide supportive care, administer medications, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and promote adherence to treatment plans. They also educate patients and their families about infection control measures, infection prevention at home, and the importance of completing the prescribed treatment.
4. A communicable and/or infectious disease that was believed to be eradicated and has reemerged now:
One example of a communicable and infectious disease that was believed to be eradicated but has reemerged is measles. Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that was declared eliminated in the United States in 2000. However, in recent years, there have been outbreaks of measles due to decreased vaccination rates and pockets of unvaccinated individuals. These outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage to prevent the reintroduction and spread of vaccine-preventable diseases.
In conclusion, understanding the principles related to the occurrence and transmission of communicable and infectious diseases is essential for healthcare professionals. Nurses play a vital role in the prevention, control, and management of these diseases at various levels of prevention. Additionally, addressing communicable and infectious diseases aligns with the focus areas and objectives of Healthy People 2020, promoting health literacy, immunization, and infection control. Continued vigilance, education, and collaboration are necessary to prevent the reemergence of eradicated diseases and ensure the effective control of communicable and infectious diseases.